Instructions for Authors

The following guidelines should be followed when submitting a Research Article to the Wales Journal of Education.


Manuscripts can be submitted in either English or Welsh. When published, articles are translated to be available bilingually.

Word count

Research Articles should not normally exceed 8,000 words (excluding references).


The Wales Journal of Education publishes to Harvard referencing style. Submissions should include a References section, with entries in alpha order, as the following examples:

Abram, D. (2010). Becoming Animal: An Earthly Cosmology. New York: Vintage Books.

Jardine, D. W. (1992). Immanuel Kant, Jean Piaget and the rage for order: Ecological hints of the colonial spirit in pedagogy. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 24/1, 28–43.

United Nations (2021). World on the verge of climate ‘abyss’, as temperature rise continues: UN chief. 19 April 2021. Available at story/2021/04/1090072 (accessed 26 April 2021).

In-text citations should also be consistent with Harvard style, including source author(s) and publication date(s), with page numbers following direct quotes.

Preparing your manuscript

  • The article file must be anonymised throughout, including direct references to your own work in the body of the text
  • All articles must include an abstract, keywords, and references
  • Articles should be supplied as editable Word files
  • All pages in manuscript to be paginated (i.e. consecutively numbered)
  • All text (main text and notes) to be double-spaced throughout
  • Font to be Times New Roman, 12-point (in main text and notes)
  • All text to be justified left

Images, graphs, tables

  • If any images, graphs or tables are used in your article, please indicate where they should appear with placement markers, such as ‘Figure 1 here’.
  • Images should be submitted separately to the article, as .jpg or .tif files.
  • If an image includes text, an editable version must be supplied as a .eps file. This will ensure we can translate any image text.
  • Images should be supplied as large and hi-resolution as possible, ideally 300dpi at A4. Images of a low quality may be rejected.
  • Graphs must be supplied as separate Excel files.
  • Tables can either be included in the article, or submitted separately.
  • Authors must obtain all permissions for the reproduction of any illustrative material already in copyright. The material must be cleared to use in an Open Access journal, under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence.


Within running text, quotations (set as 12-point, the same as the main text) should be in single quote marks (double for quotes within quotes).

Quotations of three lines or more in prose passages should be displayed (i.e. indented on the printed page) without quotation marks (using single quote marks, therefore, for quotes within displayed extracts), and with a line space before and after.

Use three ellipsis points to indicate deletions from within a sentence, but do not use ellipses at the beginning or end of the quotation.

If a significant amount of text from a third-party is used, permission must be cleared for publication in an Open Access journal, under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence.

Spellings (English)

Make use consistently throughout your manuscript of -ise (not -ize) spellings (with the exception of their occurrence within quotations).

Any US English spellings in the main text should be standardised to UK English spelling (with the exception of their occurrence within quotations).


The usual request is that numbers up to 100 be written out in full, unless statistical or in a list. Numbers at the beginning of sentences and approximate numbers should be expressed in words.

Percentages should be expressed as the number with ‘per cent’ (as ‘12 per cent’), but % should be used in tables. A comma should be included in all numbers of more than three digits, except for page/column/line numbers, document references and in tables.

Number range elisions

Number range elisions should follow house style to elide (using en dash, not short dash) to the fewest figures possible, with the exclusion of digits in the group 10 to 19; so the examples 10–12, 15–19, 30–1, 42–3, 114–18, 132–6, 310–11, 1841–5.